“ Terrorism is one form of Military struggle essential during certain moments of battle.
Marx however rejected Terrorism as a matter of principle, as they were against violence.
assassination of Hitler or Stalin , could have saved millions of lives, was it an act of Terrorism ? No
Terrorist was another persons freedom fighter.
In 1990 ,the
US Department of Defense defined terrorism as
(method) Unlawful use (or threatened
use ) of premediated force or violence
(target) against individuals or property (government or civilian)
by a group
to coerce or intimidate Governments or societies( civilians/groups)
(aim) to achieve Political or Religious
or Ideological (social) objectives
– without the express chartered permission of a specific government ]
of aTerrorist Organization
by James Fraser & Ian Fulton(1984)
made of :
- Active cadre
- Active supporters
- Passive supporters
& secret leadership & maintains
ORGANISATION Small <50 (most organizations)/
supporters, Are more if political Support, less if no support ,are mixed with population
of different groups in order to be identified with
ACTIVE CADRE (Tactical
Striking Arm- small ,made of specialists also called
made up of these CELLS (Largest group)
Communications for propogating Terr campaign in Media(LTTE run foreign service in 38 countries-daily bulletin, run illegal radio stations in Sri Lanka, internet & video clips
Supply of safe houses, Weapons, explosives, resources, Food
Intelligence Wing to accessing targets, planning ,
missions and forging documents
Logistics, made of Finance & Administration units
CELLS are semi
autonomous with all specialties
terrorist organizations autonomous sub units which may function independently
Terms explained :
can be for democratic independence ( India –British ) or by one imperialist to take over from superpower .He may be supported by another superpower
extremists - RARE – intellects ,communists ,fighting for communism ,
before WW –II, Under support by USSR & China
imp in Europe & America – as want to overthrow
extremists – are wanting independence from fuedal rule & democracy
Not very imp in Europe & America & Govts are not
Imp in 1990s in USA
is a Psychological
Phenomenon made of bored and lost individuals
a central command , poorly coordinated , badly organised , small groups continuosly emerging , are against everyone who disagrees
( Tax Rebellion ) like Democrats , Homosexuals , Police , Bankers , Taxation , Tax collectors , Media
of Washington Govt above local Sheriff
ORDER of DEVELOPMENT:
Engels Partners – Germans -- 1800s
Russia – needed revolution – 1900s
Russian Politician – 1950s
Stalin after World War II converted East Europe into communist USSR Satellites with Autocratic Rule over East Europe who made USSR into a superpower
IRA, Irish Republican Army, (Marxist socialist group),
in N Ireland against British rule,
Catholics and Protestant groups, fighting for a united Ireland.
In the UK, majority are roman
Catholics. The british had colonized Ireland, N.Ireland, was dominated by the British Scottish Protestants! In 1921, N.Ireland was created as independent with Protestant domination,but N.Ireland
was semi autonomous under British Rule.
favouring of Protestants in N Ireland, and no jobs to catholics.
to riots and terrorism.
Terrorism has now faded out, though N
Ireland is still part of the UK.
ETA (Basque Nation
and Liberty , Nationalistic Terrorism)
In Spain the majority are Roman Catholics. Basques are minority in in Spain & France. In N.West Spain, the majority are
the Galican people (French influence) whereas in the South – Moorish people (S.African influence)
and 1939 there was a civil war, followed by Gen Fransisco Franco a dictators rule. From 1939 to 1975 Gen Blanco ruled who was assasinated by ETA. In 1950 the
Basques wanted inependence formed the ETA. ETA wants a Basque nation separate
from France & Spain ,and fights Spaniards
and Col Moamar Khadafi
The Libyan capital Tripoli , was ruled by the Emigres
at one time
Khadafi seized power from British & French occupation declaring Libya to be a anti western state.
he enlisted Carlos the Jackal ,the International terrorist, who was then enlisted
with PLO. PLO & Arafat were on good terms. When PLO was ousted out of Libya & Khadafi supported ANO an anti PLO organization.
was responsible for 25 attacks in Europe against Libyan political émigrés. Also the LaBelle discotheque in west Berlin in which 3 US soldiers were killed and
80 US soldiers were wounded along with 200 Germans. The attacks on Vienna &
Rome Airports, TWA Plane bombing over Greece were also his doing.
USA retaliated by conducting an air strike on Libya, “El Dorado” canyon , where
the damage was minimal, but the warning serious. Since then Libya was cautious and till 1989, there was a decline in terrorist acts.
In the 1900’s,the
bombing over Panam, Lockerbie (Scotland) of the UTA French flight over Chad was his doing.
By 1990 Khadafi was virtually ignored.
PLO ( Palestine Liberation Party),
Arafat and the Middle
Christ’s Burial place
Mohd rose to Heaven from a Shrine – Islam
And Remains of Holy Temple of Jews
Israel formed its own
independent country. All Arab countries
attacked Israel Jordan (PLO) took over West Bank in Israel but Israel put up a strong fight and ousted them out of West Bank (yr 1967- 6day war)
Arafat formed “fedayeen” group of warriors.(in 1959).Militant arm of fedayeen
‘Fatah’ worked by
Sending ambush teams to Israel
Shelling Israeli settlements
3. Planting bombs
attacked civilians ,school children,apartments,farms ,etc
Aims of the PLO were as follows
- To gather disgruntled Palestininans in Jordan
- To form an alliance against Israel
1968, Israel fed up of PLO attacks in turn launched attack on Karamah, Arafats primary bases in Jordan.
started getting public –hijacking ,hostage taking incidents. Other terrorists all over the world joined PLO and their
Arafat’s PLO splintered into parts .Now all the while Jordan ruled by King Hussein . PLO joined hands with Syria and Iraqi sponsored
organization in Jordan.
Hussein’s September attack on Arafat, he created a new group –‘Black
September” Along with German terrorists’ help Arafat attacked Israeli Olympic
team as hostage and killed those who tried to escape in Munich.
became President of Palestinian National Council & Palestinians got a semiautonomous
area in Israel. Abu Nidal vowed to kill Arafat.
1995,prime minister ,Rabin shot by a Jewish extremist.
LTTE , Liberation Tigers of Tamil Ealam
tamils fighting for an independent Ealam (homeland)
Sri Lanka got independent of British. Majority in Sri Lanka were Sinhalese. Less than 20 % were Tamil , with support from Tamil Nadu, as the government had tried to extradict Tamils
In 1976 LTTE was formed by Guru Balasingham. The military wing was headed by Prabhakaran, who was influenced by the ideas of Subhash Chandra
Bose and Vivekananda and theLt wing, Marxist Leninism.
In 1973-1987 Riots broke
out in Sri lanka between the two factions. There were assassinations
of Sinhalese and Tamil leaders.
In 1987 Indian
Peace Keepers landed there directed by the PM, Rajiv Gandhi
were killed, and the Jaffna peninsula base destroyed. The Tamils retreated into the jungle and the Indians withdrew.
In 1991, Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated by the LTTE during the election propoganda.High profile
TN officials were involved & it was alleged that the Indian secret services under direction of the then ruling party,
had helped LTTE.
In 1995, Sri Lankan government offered generous
Autonomy to the LTTE. The offer was however rejected by Prabhakaran.
In Jan 1996, 100 civilians were killed ,1400 injured, in the Colombo bank
In July 1996, 4000 LTTE seized govt military bases,
NE of Colombo, and killed 1200 army men.
In Sept 1996,
LTTE lost its second base in Kilinochi, with 1000 LTTE killed.
4 LTTE frogmen
blew up 2 Sri Lankan gunboats.today the Tiger Navy speedboats interfere with
Indian army , China , Malaya and Indonesias navies.
Tamil communities abroad and extortion (via enforcers) rakes in 8 million $, particularly from the Switz Tamils.
from Asia to Europe
is also another major business.
Media and the LTTE
a foreign service in 38 countries, producing a daily bulletin.
run an illegal radio station in Sri Lanka. In the present modern days Internet is widely used and
video clips are often released.
The Al Qaeda structure
is made of
Al Jihad ( Dr Al Zawahiri Egypt -brains of Al Qaeda )
Al Islamiah (Sheikh Omar Abdul Rahman) blind sheikh, now in US jail was involved in WTC
Al Qaeda Organisation
Consultative council (made of only experienced members)
- Finance &
- Fatwa & Study
- Media &publicity
Each of the 4 is headed by Emir
Financing of the Al Qaeda
Qaeda needs 36 million $ a year to maintain its agents all over Afghanistan ,
as well as for weapons , infrastructure , camps , houses , vehicles 50 million
$ and huge investment in planning and preparatory stages of their attacks.
1. Prominent Saudi
businessmen , wealthy Arabs from UAE , Kuwait & Qatar.
2. Al Qaeda is financed
from sale of narcotics .
3. Osama inherited
‘only’ 20 – 30 million $.
4. It has extensive
front , cover organizations , including businesses like diamond trade , import , export , manufacture & transport.
5. For its transactions
, many businesses and banks in the gulf are used as ‘fronts’ enabling Al Qaeda to conduct business under cover.
the strategic reserve of Al Qaedas terrorist network providing motivated & experienced fighters for operations as &
It is actually the 055 Brigade – The Afghanistan army.
055 Brigade memberships is from Arab countries, SE Asia, Central Asia + Aghans
– who fought elsewhere like Kashmir, Tajikstan, etc. (but trained in Afghanistan)
Al Qaeda’s military committee is responsible for recruiting , training
, procuring , transporting and launching military operations as well as developing tactics and acquiring and manufacturing
special weapons .Each camp providing recruits with basic , advanced and specialised trg is headed by an emir. The committee
appoints agent handlers who manage an extensive network of cells and agents outside