Physical training for the armed forces in many parts of the world is still based on the
conventional pattern followed for the last century. Many countries have now introduced the modern concepts of Physical training,
Here Is outlined the major changes in training that have set in the physical training curriculum of most armed forces world
over in the last decade.
Below is ennumerated the modernization that must set in , or that has already set in,
in most developing countries of the world.
A proper warm up technique involving the spine and knees must be taught over conventional method (very important before
Abdominal , knee and spinal Exercise should always precede the Cardio
Endurance (running) to prevent
spondylosis & Arthritis.
The spine should be exercised as rigorously
as the abdomen since both are contralateral muscles. Hence an imbalance can result
in damage to the spine.
The conventional situp can harm the discs of the neck
and the spine and does not cause sufficient work load on the abdominal muscles. This
must be replaced by the modern crunch where the lower spine is resting always on the ground.
The conventional leg raises do not directly work out the
abdominal muscles but the flexors of the hip and thigh. This be replaced by the
bent knee leg and hip raise.
The oblique muscles of
are ignored thus increasing the chances of Hernia (i.e the prolapse of the intestines, in between the oblique muscles, into
the scrotum). Never exercise to work out the obliques, be taught.
Cardiovascular Endurance (running) should always be preceded
with a warm up jog of atleast half a km to prevent sudden rise of heart rate and Blood pressure and to ensure the contraction
of all muscle fibres (with out warming up only a few muscle fibre groups would be actively recruited).
Correct technique of running
i.e. running on the balls of the feet rather then the heels which tends to jar all the joints (ankle, knee, hip, spine) encouraging
One must be taught how to deal with first, second and third winds during running caused by (respectively) diaphragmatic
fatigue, muscle and joint pains (due to lactic Acidosis of anaerobic training) and cardio Respiratory fatigue. Thus the trainees would be capable of better performance.
Strengthening exercise like Conventional
Pushup and the Chinup may cause hyper extension of the spine and lead to
slipped discs at a later age. The reverse grip behind the neck chinup and the simple Dip must replace the older versions.
Plenty of variations of the pushup (Dip) be taught to work out the muscles
of the fingers, the forearms, the tricep, brachioradialis, Bicep and pectorals (the chest muscles) which are not well exercise
by the conventional pushup.
The full squat places a tremendous strain on
the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee joint and the discs of the spine. It
must be replaced by the modern
The conventional squat does not place sufficient load
on the inner thigh and Hamstring muscles. Hence wide squats and the lungs be
For liagmentous strengthening of hip, knee and ankle joints,
age old Duck walks, Frog Jumps, Chicken walk, Donkey walk, Monkey walk be taught. It
is to be noted that the entire stability of the joint comes only with a good ligament tone.
Flexibility and stretching is a grossly neglected
part of training. Ideally equal amount of time should be devoted to stretching
as to muscle contraction training to prevent muscle tightness and relative Hyper tonia (increase in tone). Tight muscles which are not stretched cause incoordinated and clumsy movement. They also cause Cerebral bombardment and increase anxiety thereby taking away the soldiers composure. One hour of various flexibility exercise be taught everyday after the strength training.
A soldier walks and runs all the time thus the lower limb muscles are maximally used. Hence special leg conditioning techniques be taught to bring about greater strength, endurance
and coordination in the lower limbs.
Most soldiers or servicemen tend to lose
and weight during training. Resistance training in the form of weight training
be taught to develop isolatory muscle groups (particularly those muscles which are smaller in an individual because of his
constitution or heredity need to be developed by training with weights). We must aim to make bulkier soldiers and fitter
soldiers to match the size of the enemy counterparts.
Cross training, Circuit
and various types of cardio Endurance Training be introduced.
Mental training by Yoga,
Pranayama, Meditation from the East and Self
Hypnosis, positive visualization from the west be taught over an
hours session everyday during the COOL
for : -
Imbibing courage, will power, and determination.
Instilling composure in the face of a life threatening crisis.
Self esteem, self confidence, Discipline and obedience.
These are the major changes that have set in physical training and this is what constitutes
the modern day training in Physical fitness for armed forces of the world.
SUGGESTED MODERNIZATION OF PHYSICAL TRAINING (Dr. RAO)
1. PT TIME TABLE
NECK SPINE - Forward SHOULDERS, KNEES, ANKLES)
( 5 Minutes)
( 5 Minutes)
Without timing (FARTLEK)
(Minimum 20 mins)
Or________ 100 Mtrs. Dash (RECEPTION TRAINING) x 10 - 20 Sets
Or________1 Km Interval (1 – 3 Miuntes Walk) x 3 – 5 Sets
Or _______Walks _______ Chicken
STRENGTH ___Pushup ____ Types as per Hand position (5 Minutes)
____ChinUp_______ Overgrip behind Neck (10 Minutes)
FLEXIBILITY Trains_____ Calf
Upper Body (Bhujangasan)
GYMNASIUM Training___ Circuit Training for 20 – 40 participants can
be conducted over 25 – 45 minutes
training should be made compulsory in sports period twice a
week. This will result in increase in muscular weigth and making larger policemen like in the Western Countries.
(a) RUNNING TRAINING METHODS
FARTLEK_________Fixed distance without timing, Any style.
60 Mtrs/100 Mtrs x 10 or 20
1 Km Run and Walk ( 1- 3 Minutes Interval)
5 Kms IN 22 Minutes.
(b) WARM-UP BEFORE
200 Mtrs ____Warming Up and Abdomen and Spine before Running.
TIME TABLE FOR CARDIO TRAINING
MONDAY_____________Fartlek Method (Starting to Ending 2 – 5 Kms)
TUESDAY _____________100 Mtrs x 10 – 20 Repetition
WEDNESDAY__________Run & Walk
FRIDAY _____________ Walks
3. MODERN PHYSICAL PROFICIENCY TESTING (Once a Month)
(a) 2.4 Kms Run 9 minutes
10.5 Minutes 11 minutes
(b) 100 Mtrs Sprint 10 Seconds
11 Seconds 12
(d) 1/2 Squat with
4 Sec pause 80
(e) Chin Up (Front
Exercises Hand in front 50
(g) Sit Up
(h) 5 Mtrs Shuttle/1
(k) Waist Fat crude method 1/4 Inch 1/2 Inch
Diamaeter (In Cms) Should show progressive increase.
Thigh Diameter (In Cms)
SAMPLE CHART OF IDEALLY TRAINED BODY
Time Weight Waist
Month 70 Kgs 2 Inches 100 Cms
Months 67 Kgs 1 Inch
Passing Out 9 Months
72 Kgs 1/4
Such result can be achieved only by adding Weight Training in Gymnasium
Twice weekly during the Sports Period.
NOTE : The methods outlined here are
without any sophisticated instrumentation or biotechnological monitoring. They are meant for a rough evaluation &
estimation by the on field instructor.
Despite all, they serve good the purpose
of effective training methodology.