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Article by Prof. Dr. Deepak & Dr. Seema Rao

Lenin wrote “ Terrorism is one form of Military struggle essential during certain moments of battle.

Lenin & Marx however rejected Terrorism as a matter of principle, as they were against violence.

Attempted assassination of Hitler or Stalin , could have saved millions of lives, was it an act of Terrorism ? No

One persons Terrorist was another persons freedom fighter.


Definition of Terrorism


In 1990 ,the US Department of  Defense defined terrorism as


(method)    Unlawful use  (or threatened use ) of premediated force or violence

(target)       against individuals or property (government or civilian) by a group

(motive)      to coerce or intimidate Governments or societies( civilians/groups)

                   or individuals,

(aim)           to achieve Political or Religious or Ideological (social) objectives


[ unlawful – without the express chartered permission of a specific government ]



Structure of aTerrorist  Organization


as  outlined by James Fraser & Ian Fulton(1984)


Pyramid made of :


  • Leader
  • Command
  • Active cadre
  • Active supporters
  • Passive supporters
  • CELLS 


Leader  -is known internationally 


COMMAND-very small  & secret leadership & maintains Internal discipline                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               


ORGANISATION Small <50 (most organizations)/

Large Passive supporters, Are more if political Support, less if no support ,are mixed with  population of  different groups in order to be identified with



Striking Arm- small ,made of specialists also  called (ACTIVE SUPPORTERS)              



made up of these CELLS (Largest group) made of:


Communications for propogating Terr campaign in                                                Media(LTTE  run foreign service in 38 countries-daily bulletin, run illegal  radio stations in Sri Lanka, internet & video clips


Supply  of safe houses, Weapons, explosives, resources, Food and transport            


Intelligence Wing to accessing targets, planning ,             .                                                missions and forging documents


Logistics, made of Finance & Administration units




Recruitment size


CELLS  are semi autonomous with all specialties                                                    


COLUMNS  are terrorist  organizations autonomous sub units which may  function independently                     


Terms explained :


Terrorism can be for democratic independence ( India –British ) or by one imperialist to take over from superpower .He may be supported by another superpower eg USSR,USA


LT WING extremists - RARE – intellects ,communists ,fighting for communism ,

(terrorists)                                common before WW –II, Under support by USSR & China

                                                  imp in Europe & America – as want to overthrow

                                                  non- communists


RT WING extremists – are wanting independence from fuedal rule & democracy

                                       MORE COMMON

                                       Not very imp in Europe & America & Govts are not      .      .                                      seriously  endangered

                                       Imp in 1990s in USA


Extreme Right

is a Psychological Phenomenon made of bored and lost individuals

Never has a central command , poorly coordinated , badly organised , small groups continuosly emerging , are against everyone who disagrees ( Tax Rebellion ) like Democrats , Homosexuals , Police , Bankers , Taxation , Tax collectors , Media

Dislike interference of Washington Govt above local Sheriff







Engels     Partners – Germans  -- 1800s


Lenin – Russia – needed revolution – 1900s


Stalin – Russian Politician – 1950s



Stalin  after  World War II converted East Europe into communist USSR  Satellites with Autocratic Rule over East Europe who made USSR into a superpower



IRA, Irish Republican Army, (Marxist socialist group),


Terrorism in N Ireland against British rule,

by both Catholics and Protestant groups, fighting for a united Ireland.


In the UK, majority are roman Catholics. The british had colonized Ireland,  N.Ireland, was dominated by the British  Scottish Protestants! In 1921, N.Ireland was created as independent with Protestant domination,but N.Ireland was semi autonomous under British Rule.

There was favouring of Protestants in N Ireland, and no jobs to catholics.

This led to riots and terrorism.


Terrorism has now faded out, though N Ireland is still part of the UK.

ETA (Basque  Nation and Liberty , Nationalistic Terrorism)


In Spain the majority are  Roman Catholics. Basques are minority in in Spain & France. In N.West Spain, the majority are the Galican people (French influence) whereas in the South – Moorish people (S.African influence)

Between 1936 and 1939 there was a civil war, followed by Gen Fransisco Franco a dictators rule. From 1939 to 1975 Gen Blanco ruled  who was assasinated by ETA. In 1950  the Basques wanted inependence formed the  ETA. ETA wants a Basque nation separate from France &  Spain ,and  fights Spaniards


Libya and Col Moamar Khadafi


The Libyan capital Tripoli , was ruled by the Emigres at one time

1969 – Khadafi seized power from British & French occupation declaring Libya to be a anti western state.

In 1980, he  enlisted Carlos the Jackal ,the International terrorist, who was then enlisted with PLO. PLO & Arafat were on good terms. When PLO was ousted out of Libya & Khadafi supported ANO an anti PLO organization.

In 1984,he was responsible for 25 attacks in Europe against Libyan political émigrés. Also the LaBelle discotheque in west Berlin in which 3 US soldiers were killed and 80 US soldiers were wounded along with 200 Germans. The attacks on  Vienna & Rome Airports,  TWA Plane bombing over Greece were also his doing.

In 1986, USA retaliated by  conducting an air strike on Libya, “El Dorado” canyon , where the damage was minimal, but the warning serious. Since then  Libya was  cautious and till 1989, there was a  decline in terrorist acts.

In the 1900’s,the bombing over Panam,  Lockerbie (Scotland) of the UTA French flight over Chad  was his doing.


By 1990  Khadafi was virtually ignored.


PLO ( Palestine Liberation Party),  Arafat and the Middle East


       Israel has 

       Christ’s Burial place

       Mohd rose to Heaven from a Shrine – Islam

  And Remains of Holy Temple of Jews


Israel formed its own independent  country. All  Arab countries attacked Israel Jordan (PLO) took over West Bank in Israel but Israel put up a strong fight and ousted them out of West Bank  (yr 1967- 6day war)


Arafat  formed “fedayeen” group of warriors.(in 1959).Militant arm of fedayeen ‘Fatah’ worked by

1. Sending ambush teams to Israel

2. Shelling Israeli settlements

3.      Planting bombs

They attacked civilians ,school children,apartments,farms ,etc

     Aims of the PLO were as follows

  1. To gather  disgruntled Palestininans in Jordan
  2. To form an alliance against Israel

In 1968, Israel fed up of PLO attacks in turn launched attack on Karamah, Arafats primary bases in Jordan.

Arafat started getting public –hijacking ,hostage taking incidents. Other terrorists all over the world joined PLO and their trg centres.


Arafat’s  PLO splintered into parts .Now all the while Jordan ruled by  King Hussein . PLO joined hands with Syria and Iraqi  sponsored  organization in Jordan.



After Hussein’s September attack on Arafat, he created  a new group –‘Black September” Along with German terrorists’ help Arafat attacked Israeli Olympic  team as hostage and killed those who tried to escape in Munich.



Arafat became President of Palestinian National Council  & Palestinians got a semiautonomous area in Israel. Abu Nidal vowed to kill Arafat.


In 1995,prime minister ,Rabin shot by a Jewish extremist.



LTTE , Liberation Tigers of Tamil Ealam



These are tamils fighting  for an independent Ealam (homeland)

In 1948, Sri Lanka got independent of British. Majority in Sri Lanka were Sinhalese. Less than 20 % were  Tamil , with support from Tamil Nadu, as the government had tried to extradict Tamils to India

In 1976  LTTE was formed by Guru Balasingham. The military wing was headed by  Prabhakaran, who was  influenced by the ideas of Subhash Chandra Bose and Vivekananda and theLt wing, Marxist Leninism.

In 1973-1987 Riots broke out in Sri lanka between the two factions. There were assassinations of  Sinhalese and Tamil leaders.




In 1987 Indian Peace Keepers landed there directed by the PM, Rajiv Gandhi

12,000 Tamils were killed, and the  Jaffna peninsula base destroyed. The Tamils retreated into the jungle and the Indians withdrew.


In 1991,  Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated by the LTTE during the election propoganda.High profile TN officials were involved & it was alleged that the Indian secret services under direction of the then ruling party, had helped LTTE.


In 1995, Sri Lankan government offered generous Autonomy to the LTTE. The offer was however rejected by Prabhakaran.


In Jan 1996, 100 civilians were killed ,1400 injured, in the Colombo bank

In July 1996, 4000 LTTE seized govt military bases, NE of Colombo, and killed 1200 army men.


In Sept 1996,  LTTE lost its second base in Kilinochi, with 1000 LTTE killed.

4 LTTE frogmen blew up 2 Sri Lankan gunboats.today the  Tiger Navy speedboats interfere with Indian army , China , Malaya and  Indonesias navies.


LTTE financing        

Support from Tamil communities abroad and extortion (via enforcers) rakes in 8 million $, particularly from the  Switz   Tamils.                 

Heroin smuggling from Asia to  Europe is also another major business.


Media and the  LTTE

They run a foreign service in  38 countries, producing a daily bulletin.

They also run an illegal radio station in Sri Lanka. In the present modern days Internet is widely used and  video clips are often released.



The Al Qaeda structure 


is made of

Al Jihad   ( Dr Al Zawahiri Egypt -brains of Al Qaeda )

Al Islamiah (Sheikh Omar Abdul Rahman) blind sheikh, now in US jail was involved in WTC Attk 1993


Al Qaeda Organisation


The Pyramid:


Osama (Emir)


Deputy Emir


Consultative council (made of only experienced members)                                                                                                                                             

  • Military                      
  • Finance & Business        
  • Fatwa & Study     
  • Media &publicity  


Each of the 4 is headed by Emir


Financing of the Al Qaeda


Al Qaeda needs 36 million $ a year to maintain its agents  all over Afghanistan , as well as for weapons , infrastructure , camps , houses , vehicles  50 million $ and huge investment in planning and preparatory stages of their attacks.

1.      Prominent Saudi businessmen , wealthy Arabs from UAE , Kuwait & Qatar.

2.      Al Qaeda is financed from sale of narcotics .

3.      Osama inherited ‘only’ 20 – 30 million $.

4.      It has extensive front , cover organizations , including businesses like diamond trade , import , export , manufacture & transport.

5.      For its transactions , many businesses and banks in the gulf are used as ‘fronts’ enabling Al Qaeda to conduct business under cover.


The Taliban


Is the strategic reserve of Al Qaedas terrorist network providing motivated & experienced fighters for operations as & when required.

It is actually the 055 Brigade – The Afghanistan army.

055 Brigade memberships is from Arab countries, SE Asia, Central Asia + Aghans – who fought elsewhere like Kashmir, Tajikstan, etc. (but trained in Afghanistan)


Al Qaeda’s military committee is responsible for recruiting , training , procuring , transporting and launching military operations as well as developing tactics and acquiring and manufacturing special weapons .Each camp providing recruits with basic , advanced and specialised trg is headed by an emir. The committee appoints agent handlers who manage  an extensive network of cells and agents outside Afghanistan.

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