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Article by Prof. Dr. Deepak rao & Dr. Seema Rao

Terror Statistics


20,000 Kashmiris trained by Pak  recent years

30 militant groups

5000 world terrorists other than US, India


Terrorists (1990-1998)

9000 killed

27000 arrested

3000 surrendered


Army Casualties.

1500 killed

3500 injured




4000 killed

9000 injured

more  lives lost than all 3 wars together






OP TOPAC  involving 4 phases


I – 1987 – PROXY WAR





Which were executed as follows


I-                            JKLF trained in POK, funded, launched into J&K from across LOC, sanctuaries in Pak,Bangladesh,Nepal; provided wpns & explosives

II – subversion of students from 500 madrasas

III – a) via support of ProPak politicians in Britian,US,Canada.

        b) recruit mercenaries from Afghan , Sudan , Algeria , Saudi Arabia

IV – Blasts, riots,terror – 92- Babri Masjid , 1993-blasts in Delhi, Bombay,                  

                     Hyderabad, Nagaland; Riots in Bhatkal-Karnataka



The ISI Strategy In India


  1. Immigration


Hundreds of Pak Nationals come into this country , on false names , don’t report arrival & departure at police stations and 50% disappear.


  1. Infiltration


Pak agents infiltrate through porous borders not only in J&K , but borders of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and also through Bangladesh & Nepal into Assam & Nagaland & West Bengal (Siliguri).

J&K Terrorism (Modus Operandi)

a.      Training is given in Pakistan, POK, Afghanistan.Al Badar 1(weapons-6wks), Al Badar 2 (Tactics & explosives 4 wks) & Al Badar3 (cdo- 8 wks).Training camp numbers Pak-91, POK-72, Afghanistan-21.

b.      They come to launching pads close to LOC.

c.      Infiltration in 4-5 numbers with the help of guides who take them to villages.They pass villages and may stay there or proceed  to village Porters carry their luggage.

d.      Hideouts – mountains, jungles, caves, huts of nomads (shoks of Bakarwals), Tents for 3-10 people, cooking, weapons, communications.There is a look out sentry posted out.

e.      They dress up like locals in the village and avoid security forces in general.

Other methods of Infiltration – as part of

(i)                 Petrol tankers

(ii)               Labourers & workers

(iii)             Marriage parties


  1. Smuggling


Weapons and Explosives, including detonators , timers , cords are smuggled hidden  in toys.These are often seized  by the Police.These are smuggled through buses & trains from Pakistan to India through Attari & Wagha Borders.


  1. Countries across LOC


Launching bases arre established all along the LOC in J&K. Training centres are established in Nepal, Bangladesh,POK,Afghanistan where agents can be trained.Training centres also exist in Pak- near Lahore,Karachi & Islamabad(?)


  1. Madrasas Activity


In Certain Religious schools in some places  jehadi discourses are given for recruitment, Madrasas are established across 1000 km border of Rajasthan and many  more in J&K & other cities.


  1. Conversion


Harijans are encouraged to convert into Islam. According to census:

a.      There is 78% growth in Muslims & only 42% Hindus in Assam.

b.      There is 40% growth in muslims from 1971-91 in Rajasthan.

c.      50% of 3000 Pakistanis visiting Hyderabad disappear.


  1. ISI agent network


ISI agents settle in various cities all over the country as resident ISI agent for that city.Cities- Bombay, Delhi, Hyderabad, Gujrat, Punjab, Rajasthan, TammilNadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, North East(Assam, Nagaland), J&K, Karnataka, etc. They assume Hindu names , procure false Ration cards.They even marry the locals , have kids  to gain Indian citizen. They open STD booths etc for day to day communication by STD – Islamabad & Karachi to their bosses who are in direct touch with ISI.

     Helper agents come into the country to help these agents and

a.      bring explosives, etc

b.      bring money

c.      In urdu, Lists of families of dead militants – money distribution , 2 lakhs-50 families,Rs 5000 each family

d.      Religious propoganda booklets Jehad-eg Maulana Azhar

e.      Communication codes for talking to ISI bosses.

All these have been found in confiscations & raids . Large amount of cash comes through post , even Bank drafts from abroad, say the local post masters.


  1. Subversion


Religious instigation & converting

(1)   Harijans  to  muslims

(2)   Muslims  to  jehadis (recruitment)

By ISI via terrorist groups eg JET – Anti-India religious pamplets distribution.The ISI agents recruit the muslim local youth, with no criminal record in the madrasas & mosques after spreading jehadi propoganda pamplets & video cassettes.


  1. Training


Thr recruited youth is sent via a tortuous route (eg via Bangladesh, Nepal) to Pakistan, a basic 20 day course later sent back to his hometown.He now has to recruit 3 and hence establish a chain.Only few trained terrorists are enough in the age of explosives , numbers don’t matter. Confessions have been obtained (about the above).


  1. Finances


Money – large amounts come through via agents or via post (as above) and fake currency rackets are launched by the ISI.


  1. Role of ISI agents


a.      To send info about Vital army installations (like missile ranges) and about formation HQs

b.      To send info about elections, political happenings, etc.

c.      To engineer communal riots via blasts, shootouts of communal leaders, political leaders, defacing religious monuments,etc.

d.      To create fear of communal tensions in muslims and convince them to stockpile weapons (and explosives).

e.      To enroll the grief struck young family members of the communal casualties into jehad.

f.    ISI supplies SAM – (Surface to air) Chinese Stingers to militants




1.  Terror

      2.  Economic damage

  1. Symbolic Terrorism – Red fort ,etc.
  2. Demoralize the Army – by Attack on HQs
  3. To reduce Hindu population & increase muslim population – J&K.
  4. To create militancy & insurgency like situation in many cities (borders)




a.      Sniping

b.      Rocket Launchers attacks on buildings, convoys

c.      LET – kill pilgrims on the way to Amarnath- 40 killed on 1 aug 2000.

d.      Kill labourers – 47 on 1 aug 2000.





6 Dec 1992 –Babri Masjid demolition& riots

6 Dec 1993 Annv 5 major trains blasts

12 Mar 1993- Bombay blasts(200dead,700injured)

1995            -23 ISI agents arrested

1994- Dr Jales Ansari- Byculla chief  of Ahle Adis-Crush India movement-AP,Maharashtra ,-100 people working , small blasts ,arrested


The Bombay Blasts


1992 – Babri Masjid

12 March 1993 , killed >200 , injured 700

Blasts also occurred in 1993

In Hyderabad – 4 Nerve Centres

In Nagaland -  Kamrup Express   Nov

In Punjab – 5 major trains            Dec

In Delhi  IYC office ( 40 kg RDX )

1993  Communal riots in Bhatkal (Karnataka)


  1. Bombay Blasts occurred 3 months after Babri Masjid – 6 Dec 1992. It was naturally assumed that Dawood Ibrahim and the muslim underworld had taken revenge,but
  2. Large scale stockpiling of weapons even prior to the demolition of babri Masjid. These were smuggled by Mustafa Manjus launches from M.East (Dubai)
  3. Moles in Pakistan passed message to IB that ISI had targeted Bombay for bomb blasts at a nuclear power facility consequently the security was beefed up.A frustrated ISI turned to civilian targets.
  4. The choice of targets were not to kill Hindus only but to destroy economy and dissuade foreign investors from (a) investing in Bombay

                                                         (b) visiting the country

  1. The unexploded scooter bombs contained Semtex – no Plastique is

      manufactured in India and has ever been used by terrorist organisation in       India.One raid recovered 500 kg RDX 1 day after the blasts.

Thus Bombay blasts was not a Hindu Muslim problem


Parliament Attack Conspiracy


1)     ISI instructed the LET leader Zaki-Ur-Rahman & JEM Chief Masood Azar had joined hands to  organise a fidayeen attack in Delhi at many vital installations.

2)     ‘Ghazi’Baba’ told Mohd Afzal  ,the Delhi JEM coordinator along with his cousin Shaukat Hussain a truck owner and Syed Abdul Rehman Gillani ,a lecturer in Zakir Hussain College (who was first picked up by Delhi Police)

3)     Afzal went to Srinagar repeatedly ,met Ghazi baba there and Tariq Ahmad who introduced him to the 5 terr who  he brought back to Delhi and kept in safe houses organised by Shaukat ..Explv and the squad was brought from Tral in Srinagar to Delhi in Shaukat’s truck.

4)      In Nov 2001,initially only 1 terrorist Mohammed was transported .He was the hijacker of IC-814 who killed Rippan Katyal ,a civilian overboard ( he blew himself in the Parliament premises).Later 2 terr came in 2 visits  (2x2 ) to Delhi(total 5 terr in attack)

5)     In Dec  they bought  a motorcycle to recce the Parliament area.,an ambassador (fake stickers) and fitted a beacon & tinted glasses.

6)     Dec 11-they went ahead with their plan in cell phone contact with Afzal who was to inform them about the VIPs present. (Afzal never got back on line once the op started)

    Aim – to kill PM, Home minister, seize Parliament & hold MPs, MLAs hostages.


Hijack IC - 814  The Conspiracy


 (longest hijack Op till date –24 Dec1999)


1)     ISI-DG Lt Gen Mahmood Ahmed hatched the plot and via Brig Salahuddin Satti

2)     The iSI resident agent of Mumbai was Abdul Latif Momim – came in Dec 1998 after trginn1997 at HUA after enrolment in  1996 in Gujrat.

3)      Aug 99 - His brief  was to organise a hijack of Flight from Sahar International Airport .He reported back saying it was impossible .2 ISI agents  fro m Pak joined him to help.

4)     Early Dec 1999,Latif went to Kathmandu via UP, and met Pak High Commissioner and made 2nd trip to Kathmandu via Calcutta.

5)     Oct 99 – 4 men hijacked a car and looted  Rs 7   lakh from Maharashtra State Coop Bank ,Borivali, took away an ID card from  a bank employee & bought  a SIM card & mobile & called Karachi ,Kandahar & Kathmandu.

6)     Car licenses were obtained from Jogeshwari Motor Trg Schools, Bombay. Seven travel agencies supplied them  with 2 passports for 500 Rs each from Bombay Passport Offices on basis of Drug License. These passports were to procure forged passports under false names for the 6 hijackers the chief was (Ibrahim Azhar0 Maulana Azhars brother.

7)     The sixth hijacker was Yusuf Nepali along with his wife ,were still in Bombay even after the hijack.

8)     The Police intercepted mobile messages from Kandahar to Mumbai from the hijackers and arrested Abdul Latif Momim, Rafiq Mohd along with 2 Aks,5 grenades,4 anti tank shells, RDX deto on Behrambaug  in Jogeshwari (East) .They gave no resistance for arrest.


Srinager Assembly Bombing 1 Oct 2001 2PM , tactical


1)     JEM  , 4 militants ( 38 dead , 80 injured)

2)     Tata sumo (from stolen Telecom) packed with RDX . 4 militants in CRPF uniforms driven towards J & K Assembly bldg.

3)     3 terr alight .Driver rams veh into Assembly gate.2 km radius explosion .

4)     In the chaos 3 terr enter assembly premises.Exchange of fire .Mortars & grenades are used.

       5 hours Close quarter battle.

5)     The bldg catches fire .People trapped inside are dead.


Storming of 15 Corps HQ, Badami Baug, Cantt , Srinagar  tactical  3 Nov 99 ,5.45 PM


1)     3 Terr ,LET ,9 dead .

2)      On morning Lt Gen Kishan Pal Corps Cdr in press conference said that Army had controlled Insurgency.

3)     5.45pm  ---3 terr in a minibus parked outside  Badamibaug Cantt entrance

4)     1 terr shot a rifle  fired grenade  to create a diversion ,where soldiers accidentally killed 1 BSF jawan.

5)     The 3 terr scaled 4 foot wall into Cantt and hid behind shrubs.

6)     They moved towards Public Relations Office.1 major and 7 staff came out and were shot.

7)      Soldiers cordoned off the area.From 6 pm to the next morning 4.30am Close quarter battle went on .

8)     The terr blew up one bldg next to the pr’s office.There was cement rubble with terr buried in the rubble.





 Paresh Barua


1976                     – ULFA


Op Rhino –6 mths (till Jan 1992) –2500 militants arrested ,crores of rupees recovered


1990                   – No safehouses left in Assam (all known to MI – Op Cloud Burst) , went to Bangladesh, along with ISI – set safehouses in Dhaka Chittagong.


1993 – went to Bhutan jungles (south) – 36 safehouses – 2000 numbers

a straight road connects Bhutan with Assam (Guwahati)


1997 – ULFA refused to negotiate with CM – angry – intensified CI-Ops


June 1997 – 2 attempts on CM life


        1999 – killed his cabinet ministers . 

                   ended patronage of AGP,blew oil pipelines, Railway tracks



2000-2001   SULFA – 4 attempts on Paresh Barua life – firing & explosive


Paresh Barua now runs the show from Bhutan.

Royal Family government Bhutan is pressurizing ULFA to slowly phase out of Bhutan


 Other Terrorist Groups   


NDFB- National Democratic Front for Bodoland

(BODF = BodoSecForce = earlier name)

Nagaland  - NNC National Socialistic Council of Nagaland

PWG – People’s War Group- Andhra Pradesh

Are other prominent groups in India.

Assam - ULFA

   BOSF – Bodo Sec Force = NDFB(National DF BodoLand)

Nagaland – NSCN = National Socialistic Council Nagaland (part of Naga National Council , not surrended to government) – 1980

Andhra Pradesh – PWG = People’sWar Group

MP,Bihar,Orissa CPI-ML = Communist Party India(Marx-Lenin)              

Maharashtra,       MCC = Maoistic Communist Centre



TamilNadu – LTTE occasional

Punjab – Babbar Khalsa International





Types Of Islamic Groups active in  J & K


Fundamentalist (Deobandis)


Follows 4 muslim Imams (religious ldrs)

a)     Harkat-ul- Mujahideen

b)     Hizb-ul-Mujahideen

c)      Jaish –e-Mohammed


Non Fundamentalist  (Wahabi)


LET does not follow the 4 Imams and is more independent   .         


All these terrorist Organizations are an offspring of  the Anti Soviet Afghanistan Jihadis.




One of Maulana Azhar‘s speech runs as follows


O Babri Masjid we are ashamed

We will not rest till you are restored to your former glory

Dead are martyrs – Allahs guests – married to the Hoors of Jannah!

A death which life envies,a million times better than life.

The infidels are trying to efface Islam from the face of the earth

The youth on the true road to Islam must be willing to wield AK-47, Pistols, Rocket Launchers.We have to liberate Kashmir from Indian rule.Soldiers of Islam – Holy warriors from 12 countries. We fight for religion, not politics. We want Islam to rule the world. We want the destruction of USA & India.

Allah has ordered this jihad. We have no option but to follow his order. The Fidayeen (suicide) attacks on Indian soil was intended to warn India to withdraw its forces from J&K & stop the farce of talks. We reject Democracy. The notion of soverignity of people is Anti-islamic. Only the Allah is sovereign.


Name – Harkat -Ul- Mujahideen


Other / legal names –HUM (Al Faran)

Leader-Maulana Fazlur Rahman Khalil (Shahbaz Khan –founder)

HQ in - Pakistan

Estb in year -1993

Members- made of only foreign militants from Egypt, Sudan, Saudi,Qatar,Abu Dhabi, Pak ,Afghanistan 

Strength-More than 1000

Major acts-

Misc info –Harkat ul mujahideen joined up with Harkat- Ul- Jehad- Islami to form Harkat ul Ansar (1993 Oct )


Name – Lashkar –e –Toiba


Other / legal names-( Markaz Dawa Wal Irshad )

 now called Jamiatul Dawah after it has banned

Leader-Hafiz Mohd Saeed, now Maulana Abdul Wahid

HQ in  Lahore, base camp in Muzaffarabad.

Estb in year -1991

Members made of  Afghans and paks

Strength - 500-1000

Major acts- 1)attack on Red Fort

                  2) attack on HQ 11 JKLI in Poonch by 12 militants  on 5 Feb93 (2 soldiers died).                                                                                                                          

                   3) Babri Masjid on 6 Dec 1992

                   4) Indian parliament Attack (7 dead ,11 injured)


Misc info –Hafiz Saeed was a professor


Markaz  Dawa wal Irshad     VC = Zafar Iqbal

200 Acres      2000 students military uniforms  No music no cigarettes

has following areas:

  • Residence
  • Teaching
  • Mosque
  • Medical
  • Ponds    Breeding fish
  • Stable     Breeding Horses      



Rs 30 Millon = Rs 3 crores, as below ; 1 crore for mosque osama, 1 crore Ahmed ?   1 crore Saudi Sheikh



Chinese Anti Aircraft guns, stingers, 60 mm mortars  ---- for bldgs, bridges-----upto 2.5 km already pushed into J&K


Trg camp ( kunnar Afganistan ) = “ Masada = Lions Den”

                                                          21 day basic course – arms

                                                          RL, SAW, Stingers

                                                          3mo Advance course – Guirella warfare.  


1000 offices – allover Pakistan


LET (PAK)  (Fidayeen suicide mission)

  • Launching camps
  • Recruiting Officers Pak 2500
  • finance (Donations)                                                      
  • Trg camps along LOC 12  & in Pak 6       
  • religious publications
  • social  service groups,


  • Work under Politico / Religious cover Institute

Markaz dawa wal Irshad ( centre for religious learning)

  • Ldrs – Motivate, Instigate in religious sermons in mosques
  • Recruitment – offices   media etc
  • Trg centres


Damage caused-


Last 11 yrs Jihad                   14,369           Indian solders --------Let 1,016

1999                                       258               Indian soldiers  11 suicide missions

2000                                       891              Indian soldiers   98 suicide missions          

(  incl 3 Cols   10 Majs   & 3 Engineers )


Name – Jaish –e –Mohammed (JeM)


Other / legal names

Leader  -Maulana Masoor Azhar (religious motivator & leader), Omar Sheikh (Trg & Arms Instructor)and Mushtaq Zargar(Recruitment)

HQ in Islamabad , Pakistan

Estb in year –2000 after Hijack IC-814

Members made of mostly J&K locals ,some  foreign militants

Strength – 500-1000

Major acts-

Misc info –Maulana azhar is originally a jounalist.Omar Sheikh was involved in kidnapping and killing of Daniel Pearl ,correspondent of Wall street.Mushtaq  Zargar was head of Al-Umar


Name -Hizb-ul-Mujahideen


Other / legal names-  JKHM

Leader- Syed Salahuddin (Yousef Shah), Sec Gen, Majid Darr

HQ in POK, Indigenous

Estb in year 1989, 1991, Reorganised

Members made of  mostly local,some foreign militants

Strength-  1500 active only


Major acts- Hijack of IC-814  on 24 Dec 99 was  for exchange of Maulana Masood  Azhar ,Omar Sheikh and Mushtaq Zargar,.IC 814 was hijacked from                                Kathmandu to Kandahar(Afghanistan),Taliban negotiated and Jaswant           Singh himself delivered them


               - JKHM destroyed tel transmission tower in Banihal cutting STD for many mths in Nov 92


Misc info – Yousef Shah is originally a  school  teacher and a political figure in Srinagar . Sajjad Afghani of Kashmir JKHM died during escaping from prison.Mushtaq Zargar was head of Al-Umar(Srinagar)

10 Feb 94 –Azhar and Sajjad were arrested



Organisation has following Wings


  • Revenue     
  • Intelligence      
  • Recruitment 
  • Trg      
  • Launching Wg       
  • Education, etc
  • offices                                                           
  • Medical
  • Military Wing   



Sayed Saw Trg in Afghanistan & Modernised Trg in Valley

Area           Pooch



                        Pirpanjal    Mountain           (between  J&K )



July 2000----- -Announced ceasefire & ready to talk to N Delhi but with Pakistan                                                                                                               Intention  refused because  of leadership problems between Majid Darr (Sec Gen ) &Saed (Cdr)


Name-  JeI (Jamat –e-Islami)


Other small orgs are


Dukhtaran –e-Millat (DIM)

Chief- Syeda Indrabi ( woman) in 1987.


Taliban was headed by Mullah Mohd Omar


There are over 154 militant orgs in J & K


New Organizations


Al Qaeda

Black Commando

K-2 Regt


Insurgency in Assam and the North East


1) ULFA (United Liberation Front of Assam)

Chief- Aurobindo ,Anup Chetia,Pradip Gogoi & Paresh Barua.Paresh Barua was once a soccer player for Indian Oil.


2) National Democratic Front of Bodoland           want separate state from existing

3) Bodoland Liberation Tigers Force(BLTF)      Assam where Bodo population


4) Dima Halam Daogah(DHD)

Aim- to create an independent state for Dimasa people


Also existing are other small militant orgs




Nov 1992 – JKHM –  - Banihal - Sabotage of Telephone transmission tower , cutting STD for many months


6 Dec 1992 – Babri Masjid

5 Feb 1993 – HQ 11 Jammu Kashmir Light Infantry Attacked – 12 militants – 2 soldiers dead

10 Feb 1994 – arrest of Sajjad & Azhar of JKHM

26 Jan 1995 – Aborted Attack Kashmir Governor , Former COAS, K V Krishna Rao

Dead 12, He escaped. - JKHM

24 Dec 1999 – Hijack IC 814 & exchange Of  Maulana Masood Azhar & Omar sheikh & Mustaq Zargar

3 Nov 1999 – HQ 15 Corps explosion - Red maruti with explosives crashed into gate

1 Oct 2001 – J & K Assembly Attack , Srinagar  -Tata Sumo – 39 dead

13 Dec 2001 – Indian Parliament attack – LET , 7 dead 18 Injured

 early  1990   - Attack Red Fort   - LET

early 1990  - Blasts North Block,  Sena Bhavan



22 Sept 2002-  Elections

2terr kept 3 cops including one DSP as hostage in a house.(hostages escaped).RL assault by cops finished 2 terr.

24Sept 2002 –Akshardham temple Gandhi Nagar ,Gujarat state

2 terr entered (LeT-under guise of unknown Tehreke Khas-Gujarat(=revenge for Gujarat riots)and killed civilians 70 injured and 30 dead .NSG stormed at 1.30am night ,by 6.30am over-RL,grenades ---1 NSG dead ,3 state cdos dead,1 NSG injured

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